November 5, 2013
by Benjamin Koehne
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“Understanding Cheap Talk and the Emergence of Trust in Global Software Engineering: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective” published at CHASE 2013

The paper “Understanding Cheap Talk and the Emergence of Trust in Global Software Engineering: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective” was published and presented at , The 6th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2013), held in conjunction with the 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2013, San Francisco, California).

 Understanding Cheap Talk and the Emergence of Trust in Global Software EnginAbstract: 

While studying global software engineering teams, we found that informal non-work related conversations are positively associated with trust. We sought to investigate this phenomenon more carefully. To this end, we employed evolutionary game theory. In that literature, the kind of non-work related conversations we observed are referred to as “cheap talk”. We modified the original Stag-hunt game, and have it “play” repeatedly by a fixed population. Doing so, we are able to demonstrate how cheap talk in remote collaborations over the Internet is powerful enough to facilitate the emergence of trust and improve the probability of collaboration. We elaborate on the conditions for success and discuss both theoretical and practical implications of our findings for collaboration.

Keywords:
Cheap talk, trust, Global Software Engineering (GSE), Evolution Game Theory (EGT), Stag-hunt game.

 

 

Full reference:
Wang, Yi, Redmiles, D. Understanding Cheap Talk and the Emergence of Trust in Global Software Engineering: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective, The 6th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2013), held in conjunction with the 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2013, San Francisco, California), May 25, 2013, published in ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, V. 38, N. 5, September 2013, pp. 34-37.

 

November 5, 2013
by Benjamin Koehne
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“Globally Distributed System Developers: Their Trust Expectations and Processes” published at CSCW 2013

The paper “Globally Distributed System Developers: Their Trust Expectations and Processes” was published and presented at the 16th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013, San Antonio, Texas).

Globally Distributed System Developers

 Abstract: 

Trust remains a challenge in globally distributed development teams. In order to investigate how trust plays out in this context, we conducted a qualitative study of 5 multi-national IT organizations. We interviewed 58 individuals across 10 countries and made two principal findings. First, study participants described trust in terms of their expectations of their colleagues. These expectations fell into one of three dimensions: that socially correct behavior will persist, that team members possess technical competency, and that individuals will demonstrate concern
for others. Second, our study participants described trust as a dynamic process, with phases including formation, dissolution, adjustment and restoration. We provide new insights into these dimensions and phases of trust within distributed teams which extend existing literature. Our study also provides guidelines on effective practices within distributed teams in addition to providing implications for the extension of software engineering and collaboration tools.

Keywords: Trust; Trust expectations; Trust processes; Systems development; Globally distributed teams; Multinational organizations; Empirical study; globalization.

Full reference:
Al-Ani, B., Bietz, M., Wang, Y., Trainer, E., Koehne, B., Marczak, S., Redmiles, D., Prikladnicki, R. Globally Distributed System Developers: Their Trust Expectations and Processes, The 16th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013, San Antonio, Texas), February 2013, pp. 563-573.

 

November 5, 2013
by Benjamin Koehne
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Trust in Virtual Teams: Theory and Tools @ CSCW 2013

Trust in Virtual Teams workshop

Ban Al-Ani, David Redmiles, Cleidson de Souza, Rafael Prikladnicki, Sabrina Marczak, Filippo Lanubile, and Fabio Calefato organized a workshop focused on trust in virtual teams at the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013) in San Antonio, TX.

The workshop accepted 7 papers which are available on the workshop website: http://collab.di.uniba.it/trusttheorytools/

Full workshop reference:

Marczak, S., Al-Ani, B., Redmiles, D., Prikladn
icki, R. Designing Tools to Support Trust in Distributed Software Teams, Workshop held in conjunction with he 16th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013, San Antonio, Texas), Conference Companion, February 24, 2013, 4 pages.

 

January 2, 2013
by Benjamin Koehne
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IS-EUD 2013 submission deadline is fast approaching – Submit your work by January 11, 2013

We would like to highlight the upcoming IS-EUD 2013 deadlines and encourage you to submit your work.

Conference information

The International Symposium for End User Development (IS-EUD) series is the main forum for reporting research in EUD. The next conference will be held at the IT University in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 11-13, 2013. It is a meeting point for researchers with an interdisciplinary interest, including: Human-Computer Interaction, Software Engineering, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Artificial Intelligence, and related areas.

Conference website: http://iseud.net/

Deadlines

Long and short papers

  • Complete paper submission: January 11, 2013
  • Decision notification: February 27, 2013
  • Camera-ready due: March 11, 2013

Doctoral consortium

  • Submission: February 11, 2013
  • Decision notification: February 27, 2013
  • Camera-ready due: March 11, 2013

Workshops

  • Proposals: January 11, 2013
  • Decision notification: February 1, 2013
  • Camera-ready due: March 11, 2013

January 2, 2013
by Benjamin Koehne
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Happy New Year from the CRADL group!

The CRADL group wishes our collaborators, friends and website visitors a happy, healthy & successful 2013! Here at the CRADL group, we’re all looking forward to the new year with exciting research and collaborations.

-The CRADL lab members at UCI.

November 15, 2012
by Benjamin Koehne
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Erik Trainer Defends Dissertation

CRADL Lab member Erik Trainer has successfully defended his dissertation: Supporting the Development of Trust in Globally Distributed Software Teams with a Tool. Congratulations Erik!

Abstract:  Trust plays an important role in collaborations because it creates an environment in which people can openly exchange ideas and information with one another and engineer innovative solutions together with less perceived risk. The rise in globally distributed software development has created an environment in which workers are likely to have less information and lower quality information about their remote colleagues. As such, the likelihood of coordination breakdowns increases.  Observers of a breakdown are more likely to erroneously attribute the cause to personal characteristics (dispositional attributions) of the persons involved, rather than characteristics of the situation (situational attributions).  Data collected from globally distributed software teams show that such breakdowns can negatively impact trust between the parties involved, as well as the perceived quality of the collaboration.
At the same time, software engineering research has resulted in a rich set of tools for globally distributed software developers. These tools support the smooth flow of work across remote sites by visualizing data extracted from projects. They help developers understand changes made to the system, identify experts, determine the availability of their colleagues, and track the activities of developers on whose code they depend.
Synthesizing literature on trust, tools that support awareness of development activities, and visualization, this dissertation asks whether a tool can usefully support the development of trust in globally distributed teams. It presents the design of a tool called Theseus and two evaluations that assess Theseus’ usefulness. In the first evaluation, Theseus’ interface was analyzed using three usability inspection methods. In the second, Theseus was assessed in a laboratory experiment with 28 graduate students and 12 professional software developers.
The results show Theseus is highly usable and that it has a significant effect on distributed developers’ perceived trustworthiness toward others. Participants quickly became immersed in the information the tool provides. In situational conditions, Theseus resulted in higher perceived trustworthiness and more situational attributions than dispositional ones. These results support the overarching hypothesis of this dissertation and open up interesting areas for future research, especially understanding how collaboration tools can potentially shape distributed software developers’ sense of trust toward one another.

November 15, 2012
by Benjamin Koehne
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“Supporting Initial Trust in Distributed Idea Generation and Evaluation” published and presented at GROUP 2012

Congratulations to Jana Schumann, Patrick Shih, David Redmiles, and Graham Horton on the publication of their paper, “Supporting initial trust in distributed idea generation and idea evaluation”. Jana presented the paper at the 17th ACM international conference on Supporting group work (GROUP 2012).

 Abstract: Previous research has shown that diversity within distributed collaborative teams can lead to innovation, but trust must exist for the open expression of innovative ideas and establishment of idea credibility. Initial trust is pivotal for distributed teams where team members have never met face-to-face and have only a very limited time to accomplish a task. Our goal is to determine if knowing specific information about other team members could enhance initial trust and improve productivity and satisfaction in idea generation and idea evaluation sessions. In an experiment, we showed that cognitive and affective trust could be successfully enhanced by presenting relevant information elements, such as domain expertise and personal hobbies, and could have positive effects on the quality and quantity of ideas in idea generation sessions as well as the satisfaction of the participants with the rating result in idea evaluation sessions. However, participants receiving personal information often misconstrue this as professional competency. We also describe gender differences observed in the idea generation sessions and discuss how to better design future systems for supporting idea generation and idea evaluation activities.

Keywords: Trust, creativity, idea generation, idea evaluation, brainstorming, TWAN schema, distributed teams, virtual teams, globalization

November 15, 2012
by Benjamin Koehne
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David Redmiles Gives Opening Keynote Address at Brazilian Symposium on Collaborative Systems (SBSC 2012) and Helps with Writing Workshop

David Redmiles gave the opening keynote address at the Brazilian Symposium on Collaborative Systems (SBSC 2012). David also participated in the writing workshop at SBSC as a mentor. The symposium took place from Oct. 15-18, 2012 in São Paulo, Brazil.

Keynote title:
Awareness, Trust, and Tool Support in Distance Collaborations

Abstract:
Our day-to-day activities and especially our work increasingly involve distance collaborations. As individuals, we work in isolation and integrate results via collaborative technologies. Also, with great frequency, we see new kinds of collaborative technology and variations on existing technologies supporting new tasks or new aspects of activities. This trend of distributed, collaborative work and the technologies supporting it fuel one another and the combination motivates the research that my group has performed for the past several years. The problems are fascinating in their diversity and human-centered nature. Indeed, while we study and develop technologies for supporting distance collaborations, we equally study individuals’ and organizations’ reactions to, use of, and disuse of these technologies. In this talk, I will discuss a wide range of technologies we have developed, theoretical findings we have made, and approaches we take in researching distance collaborations. While the theories and concepts apply to multiple domains, the examples discussed are almost exclusively in the context of collaborative software engineering. Examples of the topics I will discuss include the following:  tool support, visual user interfaces, awareness and trust among collaborators, effects of gender and culture, and empirical work in organizations and laboratory settings. Most of all, I wish to share with the audience the excitement and the overall promise of research in this area.

November 15, 2012
by Benjamin Koehne
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Benjamin Koehne Advances to Ph.D. Candidacy

CRADL member Benjamin Koehne successfully advanced to Ph.D. Candidacy in the Informatics program (Information & Computer Sciences) at UC Irvine.

Benjamin presented his survey paper entitled “Usability Inspections in Distributed Software Development Teams: Learning and Human-Centered Design in Virtual Worlds” on Oct. 11, 2012.

Advancement committee members: Prof. David Redmiles (chair), Prof. Gary Olson, Walt Scacchi, Prof. Peter Krapp, and Prof. Aditi Majumder.

Usability Inspections in Distributed Software Development Teams: Learning and Human-Centered Design in Virtual Worlds

 

Abstract: Geographically distributed work has become a popular way to work in various industry sectors. Distributed software development teams face many challenges in their daily work. While numerous problem reports provide insights into managerial difficulties associated to different stages of the software development process, little is known about specific technologies and practices that support usability inspections in distributed teams. Usability inspections represent core activities in software development projects that are still underresearched and difficult to employ in distributed development contexts. In this survey, a theoretical framework is presented that connects the application of virtual world technology, human-centered design principles, and a focus on continuous learning. The framework promotes the use of usability inspections in distributed software development teams and provides a new perspective on learning usability inspection techniques.

June 4, 2012
by Benjamin Koehne
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CRADL at CHASE 2012 Workshop, ICSE – Zurich, Switzerland

David Redmiles represented the CRADL  lab at the CHASE 2012 workshop ( 5th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering). The workshop is held at the ICSE 2012 conference in Zurich, Switzerland.

CRADL posters at CHASE 2012 (right and center)

The two CRADL papers (also discussed in a poster session) in more detail:

  • Attitude and Usage of Collaboration Tools in GSE: A Practitioner Oriented Theory(Yi Wang, Erik Trainer, Ban Al-Ani, Sabrina Marczak, David Redmiles)Abstract: Collaboration tools support global software engineering (GSE) by providing relevant information and work context to developers, essentially seeking to provide a local context for developers working globally. Although many collaborative tools have been developed, we have insufficient knowledge of how they are used in practice. In this paper, we review the recent empirical studies on collaboration tools for GSE. Then we theorize a conceptual framework that aims to explain how the unique contextual dimensions of GSE (e.g. culture diversity and adaptation, etc.) influence practitioners’ attitudes toward, and usage of, the tools. The conceptual framework will guide our future empirical studies, and it will be refined by the empirical evidence collected in these studies.
  • Envisioning Distributed Usability Evaluation through a Virtual World Platform(Benjamin Koehne, David Redmiles)Abstract: Ideally, usability evaluation would be part of every software development project. However, it is often overlooked due to cost and time constraints. Usability inspection methods were developed to cut cost and time compared to traditional usability evaluation. However, they still bring with them certain requirements such as having multiple designers involved in the evaluation. Inspection techniques have also been shown to be difficult to learn and teach. With software development projects becoming increasingly distributed, it is ever more difficult to have sufficient participants in a usability inspection and to collaboratively learn the techniques. Motivated by these problems, we developed a novel, prototype environment called INspect-World for distributed usability inspection techniques. INspect-World is built on top of the virtual world platform OpenSimulator. As we investigate usability inspections performed in this environment, we also address ideas of human-centered end-user development in mediated communication contexts.